Johann Herbart contributed to the Harbartian movement to introduce and provide class lesson plans for any class size (Spring, 2011, 251). Teachers needed a formal lesson plan with instruction and classroom organization to prepare students for the workplace. With the development of lesson plans, supervisors could quickly glance on teacher activity and evaluate order and planning. Spring stated an idea that “perception is the first stage in cognition, but its equally important correlative is apperception, or mental assimilation” (Spring, 2011, 251). The most effective instructional method is for material to be presented to interest students. Teachers must organize lesson plans with subject matter that is of interest to students. If they are not interested in the material, then they will lack the motivation to participate and accomplish the learning standards.
Teaching History’s article stated that teachers were confined to departmental lesson guidelines and lacked the freedom to cater plans to student interests. In the article, Simon Montfort welcomed the prepared lesson guides at first but soon became frustrated and struggled with the restrictions. Simon’s mentor worked with the system to coordinate his lesson plan ideas with the structured ones; however, he continued to struggle with the department head’s approval. He and his mentor devised a plan to work with the lesson plans and see a broader picture of the department’s expectations and he could incorporate his plans. Lesson planning must remember, “presentation is organized so that the material is related to previous interests and knowledge” (Spring, 2011, 251). Teachers must use previous experiences and ideas to build upon new material at student interests.
Spring, J. (2011). The American School: A Global Context from the Puritans to the Obama Era. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
This issue’s problem: Simon Montfort is given very little freedom to learn how to plan. (2013). Teaching History, (150), 56-59.