Of the four futuring methods highlighted in this section, educators can combine two of them to work together for learners in classrooms. Polling and visioning have similar uses to be combined, and modeling and gaming have similarities to combine as well. Polling is used to collect data from others through interviews, questionnaires, and conversations to determine needs and interests. By polling individuals, educators can be aware of directions in which to follow for appropriate learning material and curriculum. Visioning is completed when educators review past events and experiences and evaluate effectiveness of programs and studies. To conduct visioning strategies, educators can use polling techniques of interviews and conversations to assist in decision-making choices. If programs are found to be ineffective or uninteresting to student groups, educators can redesign study programs. Modeling uses things to teach concepts. Educators can use real-world models to represent complex systems (Cornish, 2004, 79). Through the use of hands-on manipulatives, students can experience complex learning material and experience visual representation of curriculum included in textbooks. Gaming is associated with modeling as students use real-world situations by playing different roles. Similar to student use of hands-on manipulatives in modeling, students can use gaming techniques for hands-on experiences as well. By interacting with real-world experiences, students gain visual knowledge as well as book knowledge.
Cornish, E. (2004). Futuring: The Exploration of the Future. Bethesda, MD: World Future Society.